PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode November 24, 2019


>>Sreenivasan: ON THIS EDITION FOR SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 24: THE LATEST ON THE IMPEACHMENT INQUIRY. MICHAEL BLOOMBERG OFFICIALLY ANNOUNCES HIS BID FOR THE 2020 DEMOCRATIC PRESIDENTIAL NOMINATION.>>LIBERTY!>>Sreenivasan: AND IN OUR SIGNATURE SEGMENT, RE-IMAGINING A REBELLION– TWO CENTURIES LATER. NEXT ON “PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND.”FROM THE TISCH WNET STUDIOS ATLINCOLN CENTER IN NEW YORK,HARI SREENIVASAN.>>Sreenivasan: GOOD EVENING AND THANKS FOR JOINING US. EVEN AS CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES WORK TO COMPLETE A REPORT IN THE IMPEACHMENT INQUIRY, INTELLIGENCE COMMITTEE CHAIR ADAM SCHIFF SAID TODAY THAT THE INVESTIGATION WILL CONTINUE AND THAT THERE IS THE POSSIBILITY OF MORE PUBLIC TESTIMONY. APPEARING ON MULTIPLE SUNDAY MORNING TALK SHOWS, SCHIFF ALSO SAID DESPITE WEEKS OF TESTIMONY AND THOUSANDS OF PAGES OF DOCUMENTS HE HAS NOT YET MADE UP HIS OWN MIND ABOUT IMPEACHMENT.>>WELL, I CERTAINLY THINK THAT THE EVIDENCE THAT’S BEEN PRODUCED OVERWHELMINGLY SHOWS SERIOUS MISCONDUCT BY THE PRESIDENT, BUT I DO WANT TO HEAR MORE FROM MY CONSTITUENTS AND I WANT TO HEAR MORE FROM MY COLLEAGUES. THIS IS NOT A DECISION I WILL BE MAKING ALONE.>>Sreenivasan: ON THE OTHER SIDE, REPUBLICAN MEMBERS OF CONGRESS AND OFFICIALS FROM THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION TOOK TURNS ARGUING THERE IS NO EVIDENCE OF IMPEACHABLE OFFENSES. CONGRESS IS ON A THANKSGIVING RECESS THIS WEEK. WHEN REPRESENTATIVES RETURN, THEY WILL ALSO FACE A BUDGET DEADLINE. WITHOUT A FUNDING AGREEMENT FOR MORE THAN A DOZEN FEDERAL AGENCIES IN PLACE BY DECEMBER 20 THERE WOULD BE A PARTIAL GOVERNMENT SHUTDOWN. WITH THE IOWA CAUCUSES TEN WEEKS AWAY, BILLIONAIRE AND FORMER NEW YORK CITY MAYOR MICHAEL BLOOMBERG OFFICIALLY ENTERED THE DEMOCRATIC RACE FOR PRESIDENT TODAY. THE 77-YEAR-OLD FORMER REPUBLICAN LAUNCHED A $30 MILLION DOLLAR ONE WEEK-LONG TELEVISION AD CAMPAIGN IN TWO DOZEN MARKETS ACROSS THE COUNTRY.>>MIKE BLOOMBERG FOR PRESIDENT: JOBS CREATOR, LEADER, PROBLEM SOLVER. IT’S GOING TO TAKE ALL THREE TO BUILD BACK A COUNTRY.>>Sreenivasan: HIS DEMOCRATIC RIVALS ARE CRITICIZING BLOOMBERG FOR USING HIS WEALTH TO BUY INTO THE RACE AND FOR A LACK OF GRASSROOTS SUPPORT. BLOOMBERG’S CHIEF ADVISER HOWARD WOLFSON SAID THE BILLIONAIRE HAS “NEVER TAKEN A POLITICAL CONTRIBUTION IN HIS LIFE” AND HE “CANNOT BE BOUGHT.” SUPREME COURT JUSTICE RUTH BADER GINSBURG WAS RELEASED FROM THE HOSPITAL TODAY AFTER BEING ADMITTED FOR “CHILLS AND FEVER” ON FRIDAY. STATEMENTS FROM THE SUPREME COURT REPORTED THE 86-YEAR-OLD JUSTICE WAS GIVEN INTRAVENOUS ANTIBIOTICS AND FLUIDS AND IS NOW RECOVERING AT HOME. GINSBURG HAS HAD A NUMBER OF HEALTH SCARES RECENTLY. EARLIER THIS MONTH, SHE MISSED ORAL ARGUMENTS DUE TO A “STOMACH BUG” AND SHE HAS BEEN TREATED TWICE FOR CANCER IN THE PAST YEAR. IN JAPAN TODAY, POPE FRANCIS DECLARED THE POSSESSION AND USE OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS TO BE AN IMMORAL CRIME AS HE VISITED MEMORIALS TO THE VICTIMS OF THE 1945 U.S. ATOMIC BOMBINGS OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI. IN NAGASAKI, THE POPE LAID A WREATH OF FLOWERS AND WARNED AGAINST THE EROSION OF ARMS CONTROL AGREEMENTS.>>(translated): THE MANUFACTURE, UPGRADING, MAINTENANCE AND SALE OF EVER MORE DESTRUCTIVE WEAPONS, ARE AN AFFRONT CRYING OUT TO HEAVEN.>>Sreenivasan: THE POPE THEN TRAVELED TO HIROSHIMA, OFFERING A PRAYER AND LIGHTING A CANDLE DURING A NIGHTTIME CEREMONY THAT INCLUDED TESTIMONY FROM TWO SURVIVORS. MORE THAN 200,000 PEOPLE DIED WHEN THE UNITED STATES DROPPED ATOMIC BOMBS ON HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI IN AUGUST OF 1945. FOR CONTINUING COVERAGE OF THE 2020 DEMOCRATIC PRESIDENTIAL RACE, VISIT pbs.org/newshour.>>Sreenivasan: PRO-DEMOCRACY SUPPORT IN HONG KONG WAS TESTED AT THE POLLS TODAY AS RESIDENTS VOTED IN LOCAL DISTRICT COUNCIL ELECTIONS. TURNOUT WAS HIGH AND THE VOTE WAS PEACEFUL, IN CONTRAST TO THE VIOLENT ANTI-GOVERNMENT DEMONSTRATIONS THAT HAVE PITTED HONG KONG’S GOVERNMENT AGAINST PRO-DEMOCRACY DEMONSTRATORS OVER THE PAST SIX MONTHS. 452 SEATS WERE AT STAKE IN HONG KONG’S 18 DISTRICT COUNCILS AND THE RESULTS ARE EXPECTED TO BE A REFERENDUM ON THE CONFLICT. JOINING US NOW VIA SKYPE FROM HONG KONG IS “NEW YORK TIMES” REPORTER AUSTIN RAMZY. AUSTIN, WE SAW THE PICTURES OF PEOPLE LINED UP. HOW SIGNIFICANT WAS THIS TURNOUT?>>THE TURNOUT WAS HUGE. 71% OF ELIGIBLE VOTERS, ALMOST THREE-MILLION PEOPLE, LONG LINES AT LOTS OF POLLING STATIONS AROUND THE CITY. HUGE INTEREST IN THIS, THIS ELECTION.>>Sreenivasan: SO, IT COMES DOWN TO THE PRO-BEIJING PARTY AND THE PRO-DEMOCRACY PARTY. ARE THOSE THE TWO KIND OF BIGGEST ONES THAT ARE FIGHTING FOR ALL OF THESE SMALLER SEATS?>>YES. I MEAN, IT IS DIVIDED AMONG SEVERAL PARTIES AND SEVERAL UNAFFILIATED CANDIDATES, BUT THOSE ARE THE TWO LARGEST CAMPS, THE SORT OF ESTABLISHMENT, PRO BEIJING CAMP AND THEN THE PRO DEMOCRACY CAMP.>>Sreenivasan: AND WHAT IS THE RIPPLE EFFECT OF THIS ELECTION? IS THIS WHAT DECIDES THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL THAT MAKES THE RULES OR HOW DOES– I MEAN, OTHERWISE WE WOULD NOT BE TALKING ABOUT A RELATIVELY SMALL CITY COUNCIL ELECTION.>>THAT’S RIGHT. IT IS SURPRISING THAT THERE HAS BEEN SO MUCH INTEREST AND FOCUS ON THIS ELECTION. THE DISTRICT COUNCIL DEALS WITH VERY LOCAL ISSUES. AS I SAW THE CANDIDATES CAMPAIGNING IN MY NEIGHBORHOOD THEY HAD SIGNS ABOUT, YOU KNOW, TRASH CLEANUP AND BUS STOP PLACEMENT AND TAKING CARE OF LEAKY AIR CONDITIONERS THAT WERE DRIPPING FROM BUILDINGS, VERY, VERY LOCAL THINGS LIKE THAT. BUT THEY DO HAVE A ROLE IN SELECTING THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE ON SORT OF A CONVOLUTED, SEMI- DEMOCRATIC SYSTEM. THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE IS CHOSEN BY A PANEL OF ABOUT 1,200 PEOPLE AND THE DISTRICT COUNCILS CHOOSE ABOUT 120 OF THOSE, OR ABOUT 10% OF THOSE. SO IT DOES HAVE A ROLE IN CHOOSING A TOP OFFICE, BUT THE OTHER REASON THIS VOTE IS SO IMPORTANT IS IT HAS BEEN A REFERENDUM ON THE PROTESTS.>>Sreenivasan: WHILE YOU AND I ARE TALKING, THEY ARE STILL COUNTING THE VOTES AND IT IS KIND OF TOO EARLY TO SAY EXACTLY HOW THIS ELECTION IS BREAKING AT THE MOMENT, BUT LET’S SAY, FOR EXAMPLE, LET’S KIND OF GO THROUGH BOTH SCENARIOS. IF THE PRO BEIJING PARTY HAS A, WHATEVER, A DECISIVE WIN AND THEY ARE THE ONES WHO WILL BE ELECTING THE KIND OF, THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE OF HONG KONG, WHAT DOES THAT SAY TO THE DEMONSTRATORS? ARE THEY GOING TO SAY, OKAY, WELL, WE LOST THIS ROUND, THAT’S IT, NO MORE PROTESTS?>>YEAH, SO IF THAT SCENARIO WERE TO HAPPEN, AND I– IT SEEMS LIKE THE LESS LIKELY OF THE SCENARIOS, IT WOULD SORT OF SAY THAT PEOPLE HAVE HAD ENOUGH, PEOPLE ARE TIRED OF THE DISRUPTIONS RELATED TO THE PROTESTS AND WOULD START MOVING TOWARD THE ESTABLISHMENT. THE PRO-BEIJING CAMP HAS TRADITIONALLY WON THIS ELECTION BECAUSE IT HAS MORE MONEY AND IT IS BETTER ORGANIZED AT THE VERY GRASSROOTS LEVEL, SO THEY HAVE WON THIS ELECTION EVER SINCE HONG KONG BECAME A PART OF CHINA.>>Sreenivasan: SO, NOW LET’S TRY THE INVERSE: IF THE PRO- DEMOCRACY GROUPS WIN THIS ELECTION WHAT DOES THAT SIGNAL TO CHINA?>>THAT WOULD BE QUITE A BIG SHOCK. AS I SAID, YOU KNOW, THIS IS AN ELECTION THAT HAS SORT OF HAS BEEN CONTROLLED BY THE PRO- ESTABLISHMENT CAMP, AND AS RETURNS ARE COMING IN WE ALREADY HAVE SEEN SOME VERY PROMINENT NAMES FROM THE ESTABLISHMENT CAMP LOST. PRO-DEMOCRATS HAVE PICKED UP A LOT OF SEATS, BUT WE DON’T KNOW IF IT WILL BE ENOUGH SEATS TO CONTROL ALL OF THE DISTRICT COUNCILS, BUT A SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF SEATS, AND WE WILL SORT OF– THIS IS THE FIRST TIME WHERE THOSE NUMBERS OF PEOPLE THAT HAVE BEEN ON THE STREET HAVE ACTUALLY BEEN ABLE TO CAST A VOTE. AND IT WILL REALLY PUT THOSE, THOSE NUMBERS WILL ACTUALLY HAVE SOME MEANING.>>Sreenivasan: ALL RIGHT, AUSTIN RAMZY OF THE “NEW YORK TIMES” JOINING US VIA SKYPE FROM HONG KONG TONIGHT. THANK YOU SO MUCH.>>MY PLEASURE.>>Sreenivasan: IT’S BEEN MORE THAN 200 YEARS SINCE A GROUP OF ENSLAVED BLACK MEN AND WOMEN LAUNCHED AN UPRISING IN MODERN DAY ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST PARISH, LOUISIANA. IT LASTED ONLY A FEW DAYS BEFORE THE POORLY ARMED REBELS WERE CRUSHED BY A LOCAL MILITIA AND U.S. ARMY TROOPS. MANY WERE CAPTURED AND CONVICTED OF INSURRECTION. BUT NOW, TWO CENTURIES LATER, AN ARTIST HAS STAGED HIS OWN VERSION OF THAT FATEFUL EVENT. NEWSHOUR WEEKEND SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT, BRIAN PALMER HAS THE STORY.>>Reporter: IF WE COULD STEP BACK IN TIME TO JANUARY 8, 1811, TO THE TERRITORY OF ORLEANS, TO THE PORCH OF A PLANTATION OWNER NAMED MANUEL ANDRY WE MIGHT COME ACROSS A SCENE SIMILAR TO THIS.>>WHY ARE YOU DOING THIS? HAVEN’T I BEEN A MASTER THAT’S TREATED YOU WITH LOVE AND UNDERSTANDING? CHARLES, WHY?>>Reporter: IT’S A QUESTION ONLY AN OWNER OF PEOPLE COULD ASK OF THE VERY PEOPLE HE OWNED. ANDRY WASN’T KILLED THAT DAY SOME 200 YEARS AGO. BUT ON THIS DAY, IN 2019, HE MET A DIFFERENT FATE. (CHEERING) THIS PERFORMANCE IS PART OF A REENACTMENT SIX YEARS IN THE MAKING, A REIMAGINING OF WHAT MANY SCHOLARS CONSIDER TO BE THE LARGEST SLAVE UPRISING IN AMERICAN HISTORY. SO I WANT TO ASK YOU WHY. WHY DO THIS?>>THIS HISTORY NEEDS TO BE KNOWN. THE PEOPLE WHO LED AND PARTICIPATED IN THIS REVOLT OF 1811 ARE HEROES. THEY WERE– HAD THIS BOLD VISION OF GETTING FREE THE ONLY WAY THEY COULD, NOT BY INDIVIDUALLY ESCAPING OR NOT BY EVEN ESCAPING WITH A FEW PEOPLE AND FORMING A MAROON COLONY– EACH OF WHICH WOULD HAVE BEEN RIGHTEOUS– BUT ACTUALLY BY OVERTHROWING THE SYSTEM OF ENSLAVEMENT.>>Reporter: DURING THE REENACTMENT, WE SPOKE WITH THE ORGANIZER, ARTIST DREAD SCOTT, WHOSE ADOPTED NAME IS A NOD TO THE PAST, A REFERENCE TO THE 19th-CENTURY ENSLAVED MAN WHO TOOK HIS CASE FOR FREEDOM ALL THE WAY TO THE SUPREME COURT. HE LOST, AND SO DID MILLIONS OF OTHER AMERICANS WHEN THE MAJORITY OF JUSTICES HELD IN 1857 THAT A BLACK PERSON, WHETHER FREE OR ENSLAVED, “HAD NO RIGHTS WHICH THE WHITE MAN WAS BOUND TO RESPECT.” BUT DECADES BEFORE, A MAN CALLED CHARLES DESLONDES HAD SET OUT TO CHANGE THAT.>>IN 1811, CHARLES DESLONDES WENT FROM PLANTATION TO PLANTATION AND HE RECRUITED PEOPLE TO BE PARTICIPANTS IN THIS REBELLION, AND HE RECRUITED HIS LIEUTENANTS AND THEY IN TURN RECRUITED THE OTHER PEOPLE ON THEIR PLANTATIONS.>>Reporter: UNDER THE LEADERSHIP OF DESLONDES, AN ENSLAVED PLANTATION OVERSEER, AND OTHERS, MORE THAN 200 MEN AND WOMEN ROSE UP AGAINST THEIR ENSLAVERS. THE GOAL: TO MAKE THEIR WAY 30 MILES EAST TO THE CAPITAL OF THE TERRITORY, NEW ORLEANS, SEIZE THE CITY BY FORCE AND CREATE A NEW NATION FREE OF SLAVERY.>>WE’RE GOING TO END SLAVERY. WE’RE GOING TO END SLAVERY.>>Reporter: OVER A TWO-DAY PERIOD THIS MONTH HUNDREDS OF REENACTORS, INCLUDING SCOTT, TRACED A ROUTE SIMILAR TO THE MORE THAN 20 MILES COVERED BACK IN 1811. THE ORIGINAL REBELS TOOK MACHETES AND MUSKETS FROM PLANTATIONS WHERE THEY HAD BEEN HELD IN BONDAGE. THESE 21st-CENTURY ROLE PLAYERS WORE 19th-CENTURY COSTUMES AND CARRIED THOSE SAME WEAPONS AS THEY MARCHED ALONG THE LEVEES OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER SHOUTING FREEDOM CHANTS IN ENGLISH AND CREOLE.>>I TALKED WITH A HANDFUL OF PEOPLE ABOUT PARTICIPATING IN THIS. SOME OF THEM WERE HEARING ABOUT THIS REBELLION FOR THE FIRST TIME, BUT WHEN THEY HEARD ABOUT IT, THEY’RE LIKE, WE NEED TO MAKE THIS KNOWN. AND REENACTING IT WOULD BE AMAZING. AND SO THEY IN TURN RECRUITED THE OTHER PEOPLE. THEY BECAME SORT OF THE LIEUTENANTS IN THE ARMY OF THE ENSLAVED AND RECRUITED OTHERS.>>Reporter: THIS COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT INCLUDED HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES TO PREPARE. THERE WERE SEWING CIRCLES TO CREATE COSTUMES AND NIGHT REHEARSALS TO MAP OUT THE STEPS OF A BATTLE BETWEEN THE “ARMY OF THE ENSLAVED” AND THE LOCAL MILITIA WHOSE JOB IT WAS TO POLICE AFRICAN AMERICAN BODIES. VOLUNTEERS CAME FROM ACROSS THE COUNTRY TO PARTICIPATE.>>SO, AS YOU KNOW, WE’RE IN THESE PERIOD-SPECIFIC COSTUMES WITH A MESH OF MODERN JEWELRY AND SNEAKERS, WE AS PERFORMERS AND ANYONE WHO SEES US WILL BE FORCED TO QUESTION WHAT DOES LIBERATION LOOK LIKE FOR BLACK FOLKS? LIBERTY!>>Reporter: JORDAN ROME TRAVELED FROM CHICAGO TO TAKE PART. IT WAS ONLY THIS SUMMER THAT SHE FIRST LEARNED OF THE HISTORIC 1811 REBELLION. BUT SHE’S SINCE FOUND INSPIRATION IN THIS STORY OF RESISTANCE.>>THEY WERE WILLING TO DIE FREE. FOR SOME OF THOSE ENSLAVED FOLKS, SIMPLY HOLDING A WEAPON IN THEIR HANDS WAS FREEDOM, JUST BECAUSE THEY HAD NO AUTONOMY OVER THEIR BODIES.>>Reporter: THE 1811 REBELLION DIDN’T RESULT IN AN INDEPENDENT NATION. IN FACT, MANY OF THE MEN AND WOMEN WHO ROSE UP AGAINST SLAVERY NEVER MADE IT TO NEW ORLEANS. THEY WERE ATTACKED AND KILLED BY U.S. TROOPS AND LOCAL MILITIA AND THOSE WHO SURVIVED WERE TRIED HASTILY BY THE VERY PEOPLE WHO HAD ENSLAVED THEM. BUT THAT’S ONLY ONE PART OF THE STORY. YOU’RE BALANCING THE FACTUAL STORY, WHICH HAD A VERY BRUTAL ENDING, WITH ART.>>YES.>>Reporter: EXPLAIN THAT TO ME.>>THIS IS A PROJECT ABOUT FREEDOM AND EMANCIPATION. IT’S NOT A PROJECT ABOUT SLAVERY. IT’S A PROJECT ABOUT FREEDOM FIGHTERS WHO HAD A BOLD VISION OF GETTING FREE BY OVERTHROWING THE SYSTEM OF ENSLAVEMENT. AND AS AN ARTWORK, I CAN SAY I DON’T WANT TO FOCUS ON THE BRUTALITY OF WHITE PEOPLE. I MEAN, EVERYBODY KNOWS THAT WHITE PEOPLE WERE BRUTAL DURING SLAVERY IF YOU THINK ABOUT IT FOR A SECOND. BUT THIS IS A PROJECT THAT ACTUALLY CAN FOCUS ON THE AGENCY AND SELF-DETERMINATION OF THE ENSLAVED PEOPLE, AFRICANS AND PEOPLE OF AFRICAN DESCENT, YEARNING TO BE FREE AND MAKING A PLAN TO DO THAT. ♪ TO FREEDOM LAND I’M ON MY WAY ♪>>Reporter: SCOTT SEES THE SLAVE REBELLION REENACTMENT AS PART OF A LIFE’S WORK THAT SEEKS TO ASK HARD QUESTIONS ABOUT AMERICA’S PAST AND PRESENT. HE DREW NATIONAL ATTENTION– AND HEAVY CRITICISM– IN 1989 FOR AN ART INSTALLATION HE CALLED “WHAT IS THE PROPER WAY TO DISPLAY A U.S. FLAG?” VISITORS COULD STEP ON AN AMERICAN FLAG WHILE INTERACTING WITH THE ART. IN 2015, HE MADE HEADLINES FOR AN ADAPTATION OF A FAMOUS ANTI-LYNCHING BANNER THAT HUNG FROM THE NEW YORK OFFICE OF THE N.A.A.C.P. IN 1936. IN SCOTT’S UPDATED VERSION THE FLAGS’ ORIGINAL WORDS “A MAN WAS LYNCHED YESTERDAY” WERE REPLACED WITH “A MAN WAS LYNCHED BY POLICE YESTERDAY” EQUATING POLICE BRUTALITY WITH LYNCHING. IT’S AN EXTENSION OF THE ARGUMENT MADE BY MANY CONTEMPORARY SCHOLARS– AND THE BLACK LIVES MATTER MOVEMENT– THAT NOT ONLY PRESENT DAY POLICE KILLINGS, BUT ALSO MASS INCARCERATION GROW OUT OF A LONG HISTORY OF OVER POLICING BLACK PEOPLE.>>FIRST THERE WAS SLAVERY, THEN THERE WAS JIM CROW, AND NOW THERE’S THE NEW JIM CROW. THERE’S CURRENTLY ABOUT 2.2 MILLION PEOPLE IN PRISON, AND ABOUT 1.1 MILLION OF THOSE ARE BLACK. THAT GROWS OUT ALMOST DIRECTLY FROM THE SYSTEM OF ENSLAVEMENT. THERE IS NO MODERN AMERICA WITHOUT SLAVERY. THE LEADERS IN 1811 HAD THIS IDEA OF GETTING FREE. NOT, AGAIN, ESCAPING, BUT OVERTHROWING THE SYSTEM OF ENSLAVEMENT. THAT WAS REALLY RADICAL.>>Reporter: FOR SCOTT TO TELL THIS STORY IS TO REVEAL A PIECE OF HIDDEN AMERICAN HISTORY. TO TELL IT FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE BLACK MEN AND WOMEN WHO ROSE UP TO LIBERATE THEMSELVES IS TO GIVE VOICE TO THOSE WHO WERE SILENCED BY EXECUTION– AND IN THE PAGES OF HISTORY, WHICH WAS WRITTEN BY THE PEOPLE WHO ENSLAVED THEM. SCOTT HOPES THIS PERFORMANCE WILL MAKE PEOPLE REEVALUATE WHAT THEY THINK THEY KNOW ABOUT THIS PERIOD AND HOW SLAVERY IS PRESENTED TODAY ON PLANTATION TOURS THAT FOCUS ON THE LIFE INSIDE THE “BIG HOUSE,” THE MASTERS RESIDENCE.>>THESE ARE SITES OF GENOCIDE. THEY’RE SITES OF GENOCIDE, AND YET THEY’RE SET UP IN A WAY THAT PEOPLE TAKE TOURS THAT WHITEWASH THE HISTORY, AND OTHER PEOPLE COME TO HAVE THEIR WEDDING THERE. WHO WOULD HAVE THEIR WEDDING AT AUSCHWITZ? WHO WOULD DO THAT? BUT THERE’S A WHOLE TOURIST INDUSTRY THAT’S BUILT ON MAKING PEOPLE LOOK BACK IN A ROMANTIC WAY TO SIPPING MINT JULEPS ON THEIR VERANDA AND UNDERSTANDING THESE SLAVE LABOR CAMPS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE ENSLAVERS.>>THE BOSTON TEA PARTY MEMBERS, THE FOUNDING FATHERS, THEY FOUGHT FOR THEIR FREEDOM. YOU KNOW? AND THESE PEOPLE DID THE SAME THING. THEY WANTED TO BE FREE.>>Reporter: IBRAHIMA SECK IS THE DIRECTOR OF RESEARCH AT THE WHITNEY PLANTATION MUSEUM, WHICH TELLS THE STORY OF SLAVERY FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THOSE HELD IN BONDAGE. HE ALSO TOOK PART IN THE REENACTMENT.>>WHAT PEOPLE DON’T KNOW IS THAT ENSLAVED PEOPLE ALWAYS RESISTED. ALWAYS FOUGHT FOR THEIR FREEDOM. FROM THE BEGINNING WHEN THEY WERE BEING DEPORTED IN AFRICA, TOO. THEY REVOLT ABOARD SLAVE SHIPS, HUNDREDS OF REVOLTS. AND ONCE THEY WERE BROUGHT OVER HERE, TOO.>>Reporter: IT’S WITH THIS SPIRIT OF RESISTANCE THAT THE REENACTORS REACHED A DESTINATION THAT THE 1811 REBELS NEVER DID. THEY MARCHED THROUGH THE FRENCH QUARTER IN NEW ORLEANS, PAST CURIOUS TOURISTS AND LOCALS, AND ENTERED CONGO SQUARE, A GATHERING PLACE FOR ENSLAVED PEOPLE IN THE 19th CENTURY ON THE OCCASIONAL DAYS OFF THAT THEY WERE GRANTED.>>SO, THE MOST RADICAL IDEAS OF FREEDOM AT THAT TIME WERE IN THE HEADS OF THE ENSLAVED PEOPLE. AND THAT’S SOMETHING FOR MODERN DAY PEOPLE TO BOTH UNDERSTAND BUT ALSO TO LEARN FROM.>>Reporter: AND FOR HISTORIAN IBRAHIMA SECK, AS WELL AS ARTIST DREAD SCOTT, RIGID HISTORICAL ACCURACY IS NOT THE POINT OF THIS EVENT.>>WHAT THESE PEOPLE GOT FROM THIS 1811 IS A SONG THAT WILL NEVER DIE. AND THAT’S THE SONG YOU HEARD ON CONGO SQUARE. I THINK THESE ANCESTORS ARE REALLY HAPPY. I THINK I COULD EVEN FEEL THEIR PRESENCE AT CONGO SQUARE. ISN’T THAT GREAT? ♪ ♪ ♪>>Sreenivasan: A RECENT STUDY PUBLISHED IN “SCIENCE MAGAZINE” FOUND SIGNIFICANT RACIAL BIAS IN AN ALGORITHM USED BY HOSPITALS ACROSS THE NATION TO DETERMINE WHO NEEDS FOLLOW UP CARE AND WHO DOES NOT. MEGAN THOMPSON RECENTLY SPOKE WITH “STATS” SHRADDHA CHAKRADHAR, WHO EXPLAINED WHAT THE RESEARCHERS FOUND.>>Thompson: WHERE EXACTLY WAS THIS BIAS COMING FROM?>>THERE ARE TWO WAYS THAT WE CAN IDENTIFY HOW SICK A PERSON IS. ONE IS HOW MANY DOLLARS ARE SPENT ON THAT PERSON. YOU KNOW, THE ASSUMPTION BEING THE MORE HEALTHCARE THEY COME IN FOR, THE MORE TREATMENT THAT THEY GET, THE MORE DOLLARS THEY SPEND. AND PRESUMABLY THE SICKER THEY ARE IF THEY’RE GETTING ALL THAT TREATMENT. AND THE OTHER WAY IS THAT, YOU KNOW, WE CAN MEASURE, ACTUAL BIOPHYSICAL THINGS, YOU KNOW, FROM LAB TESTS TO WHAT KIND OF CONDITIONS OR DISEASES THEY MIGHT HAVE. SO IT SEEMS LIKE THIS ALGORITHM WAS RELYING ON THE COST PREDICTION DEFINITION. IN OTHER WORDS, THE MORE DOLLARS A PATIENT WAS PROJECTED TO SPEND ON THE PART OF AN INSURANCE COMPANY OR A HOSPITAL, THEN THAT WAS A SIGN OF HOW SICK THEY WERE GOING TO BE. UM, AND THAT SEEMS TO BE WHERE THE BIAS EMERGED.>>Thompson: I UNDERSTAND THAT THE RESEARCHERS THEN SORT OF RE– USE THE ALGORITHM USING A DIFFERENT TYPE OF DATA. CAN YOU JUST TELL US A LITTLE BIT MORE ABOUT THAT? WHAT DID THEY USE?>>YEAH, SO INSTEAD OF RELYING ON JUST COSTS TO PREDICT WHICH PATIENTS ARE GOING TO NEED FOLLOW UP CARE THEY ACTUALLY USE BIOMETRIC DATA, PHYSICAL– BIOPHYSICAL DATA, PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA. UM, AND THEY SAW A DRAMATIC DIFFERENCE. YOU KNOW, IN THE PREVIOUS MODEL, THE ALGORITHM MISSED SOME 48,000 EXTRA CHRONIC CONDITIONS THAT AFRICAN AMERICAN PATIENTS HAD. BUT WHEN THEY REJIGGERED THE ALGORITHM TO LOOK MORE AT ACTUAL BIOLOGICAL DATA, THEY BROUGHT THAT DOWN TO ABOUT 7,700. SO IT WAS ABOUT AN 84% REDUCTION IN BIAS.>>Thompson: DO WE KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT HOW THE USE OF THIS BIASED ALGORITHM ACTUALLY AFFECTED PATIENT CARE?>>UM, WE DON’T ACTUALLY KNOW THAT BUT, AS I MENTIONED, THE ALGORITHM IS USED BY HOSPITALS TO HELP THEM FLAG PATIENTS WHO MIGHT NEED EXTRA CARE IN THE COMING YEAR. WHETHER IT’S, YOU KNOW, AN AT HOME NURSE OR MAKING SURE THAT THEY COME IN FOR REGULARLY SCHEDULED DOCTOR’S APPOINTMENTS. SO, WE CAN ONLY PRESUME THAT IF BLACK PATIENTS– SICKER BLACK PATIENTS WEREN’T BEING FLAGGED ACCURATELY THAT THEY ALSO MISSED OUT ON THIS FOLLOW UP CARE.>>Thompson: ARE THERE ANY CONSEQUENCES FOR THE COMPANY, OPTUM, THAT WAS BEHIND THIS ALGORITHM?>>YEAH. SO, THE DAY AFTER THE STUDY CAME OUT, ACTUALLY, NEW YORK REGULATORS, THE DEPARTMENT OF FINANCIAL SERVICES AND THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH SENT A LETTER TO THE COMPANY SAYING THEY WERE INVESTIGATING THIS ALGORITHM AND THAT THE COMPANY HAD TO SHOW THAT THE WAY THE ALGORITHM WORKED WASN’T IN VIOLATION OF ANTI DISCRIMINATION LAWS IN NEW YORK. SO THAT INVESTIGATION IS PENDING. ONE ENCOURAGING THING IS THAT WHEN THE RESEARCHERS DID THE STUDY, THEY ACTUALLY REACHED BACK TO OPTUM AND LET THEM KNOW ABOUT THE DISCREPANCY IN THE DATA, AND THE COMPANY WAS GLAD TO BE TOLD ABOUT IT. AND, UM, I’M TOLD THAT THEY’RE WORKING ON A FIX, UM, AND THE OTHER, THE OTHER ENCOURAGING THING IS THAT THE RESEARCHERS HAVE ACTUALLY NOW LAUNCHED AN INITIATIVE TO HELP OTHER COMPANIES WHO MAY BE BEHIND SIMILAR ALGORITHMS, TO HELP THEM FIX ANY BIASES IN THEIR PROGRAMS. SO, THEY’VE LAUNCHED A PROGRAM BASED OUT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO’S BOOTH SCHOOL TO DO THIS WORK ON A PRO BONO BASIS SO THAT THEY CAN SORT OF CATCH THESE THINGS IN OTHER ALGORITHMS THAT MIGHT BE USED ACROSS THE COUNTRY.>>Thompson: ALL RIGHT. SHRADDHA CHAKRADHAR OF “STAT.” THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR BEING WITH US.>>THANK YOU FOR HAVING ME.>>THIS IS PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND,SUNDAY.>>Sreenivasan: AND AN UPDATE ON A STORY NEWSHOUR WEEKEND’S IVETTE FELICIANO REPORTED THIS MONTH ON GOOD SAMARITAN PROSECUTIONS AGAINST PEOPLE PROVIDING AID AND SUPPLIES TO MIGRANTS ALONG THE U.S.-MEXICO BORDER. THE ORGANIZATION “NO MORE DEATHS” CO-FOUNDER REVEREND JOHN FIFE EXPLAINED HOW TACTICS USED ON HIM THREE DECADES AGO, WERE ON THE RISE AGAIN.>>Reporter: AS AN ORDAINED PRESBYTERIAN MINISTER, FIFE WAS ARRESTED BACK IN 1985, AFTER HIS CONGREGATION BECAME THE FIRST RELIGIOUS INSTITUTION IN THE U.S. TO OFFER SANCTUARY TO MIGRANTS WHO FACED DEPORTATION. 33 YEARS LATER, IN JANUARY OF 2018, NO MORE DEATHS VOLUNTEER SCOTT WARREN WAS ARRESTED ON SIMILAR CHARGES FOR ALLEGEDLY HARBORING AND SHIELDING TWO UNDOCUMENTED MIGRANTS FROM LAW ENFORCEMENT AT THE GROUP’S BASE CAMP IN AJO, ARIZONA. FIFE CONTENDS WARREN WAS SIMPLY PROVIDING HUMANITARIAN AID IN KEEPING WITH NO MORE DEATHS PROTOCOL.>>HE GAVE FOOD AND WATER AND– AND SOME MEDICAL CARE TO TWO MIGRANTS WHO JUST SHOWED UP AT OUR BASE CAMP IN AJO, ARIZONA.>>Reporter: BUT IN COURT DOCUMENTS, FEDERAL PROSECUTORS DISPUTED THAT CLAIM, ARGUING THAT WARREN DID NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ATTENTION, NOR WERE THE PEOPLE ASSOCIATED WITH THE CHARGES IN DISTRESS. THEY ALSO SAID HE WAS “NOT REQUIRED BY HIS BELIEFS TO AID IN THE EVASION OF LAW ENFORCEMENT.” WARREN’S FIRST TRIAL ENDED IN A MISTRIAL AFTER JURORS COULDN’T REACH A VERDICT, BUT FEDERAL PROSECUTORS WILL SEEK TO RETRY HIM ON TWO FELONY HARBORING CHARGES. HE DECLINED AN INTERVIEW FOR THIS STORY DUE TO THE PENDING TRIAL.>>Sreenivasan: LAST WEEK A FEDERAL JURY IN TUCSON, FOUND WARREN NOT GUILTY OF THE CHARGES.>>Sreenivasan: FINALLY TONIGHT, IT’S THANKSGIVING HOLIDAY TRAVEL TIME AND UNFORTUNATELY, YOU MIGHT NEED TO PLAN FOR SOME DELAYS. STARTING TUESDAY, SNOW AND RAIN ARE EXPECTED ON THE WEST COAST WITH A SECOND STORM SYSTEM HITTING THE CENTRAL PART OF THE COUNTRY. THAT STORM WILL MOVE INTO THE EASTERN AND SOUTHERN STATES ON WEDNESDAY. SO, TO THE 55 MILLION PEOPLE TRIPLE-A SAYS WILL TRAVEL MORE THAN 50 MILES FROM HOME FOR THE HOLIDAY, STAY SAFE. AND HAPPY THANKSGIVING TO ALL. THAT’S ALL FOR THIS EDITION OF “PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND.” I’M HARI SREENIVASAN. THANKS FOR WATCHING. HAVE A GOOD NIGHT.

Author Since: Mar 11, 2019

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