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Mod-01 Lec-32 Social change-III: Social change in industrial society

Mod-01 Lec-32 Social change-III: Social change in industrial society



so first we are discussing social change and to recapitulate what we have done yesterday first I wrote the definition of social change and I said that there are two types of definitions of social change a narrow definition and a broad definition according to narrow definition social change would be defined as change in social structure no other type of change such as economics and technological change cultural change religious convergence can be called change social change is strictly speaking because they may be causes of social change they may lead to change in social structure but unless there is a change in the structure of society social structure means sum total of normative relationships we will not call them to be a type of social change they have causes of social change and according to the broad view of social change any type of change in social order cultural symbols beliefs and also practices social practices can be covered under social change then I said that there are varieties of theories of social change there are linear theories or evolutionary theories there are cyclically theories there are dialectical theories Karl Marx's theory dialectical theory and then I discuss the impact of industrialization on various facets various aspects of Indian society industrialization has changed the world industrialization has many ramifications industrialization changed the nature of work division of labor in gisberts book work is defined in a particular manner and it's important to see the definition of work because he wants to make a distinction between work unemployment and leisure according to this world unemployment is the involuntary absence of work which means that a person is available for work but there is no work in Indian census we defined work in a very externalized sense that we divide the whole population of the country into two parts workers and non workers there is no definition of work as such but the census enumeration say that there are some people who have worked during the preceding year for any part of the year that means work will be done for one day or work will be done for entire year then we divide workers into two categories main workers and marginal workers those people who have worked for six months or more they are called main workers and those who have worked for less than six months they are called marginal workers then certain categories of population such as old children students prisoners beggars they are classified as non workers now this kind of classification tells us what is the condition of employment in the country and what are the differences between different socio-economic categories according to regions according to age according to education male and female a religion and social status hidden caste will drive and others regarding employment situation a better definition of work in India is found in National Sample Survey and the Planning Commission of Government of India uses National Sample Survey definition for work and it is on the basis of that definition anuses definition that analysis of employment unemployment etcetera is done I thought this definition of work given in his word very simple and brief it worth noticing it says that work is a human transitive activity existing for the sake of it's object regarding which society acts as its norms and destination since this is a definition I thought that I will just write down the definition on the board work is a human transitive activity existing for the sake of its object here the meaning of the work transitive is that anybody can do the work you know it's not one or two persons one or two work specific work it's not specific workers anybody can do the work agricultural work industrial work insurance banking anybody can work it's not that one particular person only has to work its work its objective anybody can work existing for the sake of its object there is some purpose of work and regarding which society acts as its norms and destination associated with all kinds of work there are norms professional considerations ethics values certain social expectations and in that sense work is an institution working hours for how long you will work Rewards qualifications exactly in what manner you will work if there are any values or ethics associated with work that is all social work is a social activity why does this say so because this word distinguishes work from unemployment and leisure in case of leisure work cannot be disassociated from the worker it's like if in the leisure time which is at your disposal leisure means the time at your disposal when you have finished your work so in leisure time if you find happiness in painting then you only have to paint see work can be done by anyone but leisure activity of painting has to be done by you if someone else may the make the painting for you you will not derive that was happiness one even not derive happiness perhaps no happiness if you like poems then if you like to write poems compose poems then you compose poems you cannot ask anyone else to compose oils for you and in that sense work is transitive and leisure is leisure demands your own involvement the main reason why gisbert is making a connection between industrialization and work is that in industrial society industries will produce so much that they can meet the requirements of a very large population and perhaps a time will come when so much work will not be required working working hours can be shortened a small number of persons can work for the entire mankind for the whole world a few factories located in one part of the world in one country can meet the industrial requirements of a specific kind of the whole world and in that situation then there will be more leisure and when needs of the entire mankind can be met by work of a small number of person than perhaps work will also not be associated with maintenance of people or sustenance or rewards then rewards to live date on something else and I like this part of this word very much which I do not find anywhere else written in this manner then that the future of mankind then will depend on how this leisure is utilized what do people do in their leisure time and there will be two kinds of people for one category he says alpha alpha type alpha men and beta beta type orbital alpha men will use the Alicia for the sake of knowledge or truth goodness beauty and beta type people will follow others footsteps normal people will be like beta type they will follow others and these are the type of people on whom management research will be done because their behavior can be influenced through advertising they are more of consumer type clients consumers and the future of mankind depends more on this kind of people who they are not forced to work they no reason why they should spend their time in these things but these are the people who will decide the future of mankind because on their own they have an intrinsic motivation to to pursue what they they want to pursue let me read one paragraph from where and he said that this industrialization in that sense leads to dualistic division of labor there is a dualistic division of flavor not division of labor in the sense of work there is division of labor in work according to him I'll Duke him and his contemporaries who have written on industrialization the term division of labor was used for division of various types of occupational activities now this and this dualistic division of society since labor is not so important now so he feels that society is a more appropriate term so dualistic division of society into two types alpha and beta I am reading if the situation were essentially such as has been foreshadowed in these pages it is quite probable that the cybernetic society cybernetic could be roughly divided into two kinds of men those who use the Alisha in activities conducive to the stability and progress of society some people whose activities will lead to stability and progress of society who could be called the L fireman and those who spend it in serving to their own comforts and conveniences that beta men so beta men look for near convenience and comfort alpha men are from inside compared to go for higher aims higher aims of life or they contribute to society the former would be those persons who would devote most of their lives to the search for knowledge truth and goodness in all aspects truth goodness knowledge in all aspects this would amount to a modern version of good life to use him as was the ideal of the sages of the old gen is one form of Buddhist philosophy which was and is still prevalent in Japan these would be the men on whom the future of society would depend among them we would find eminent philosophers educators and humanists as well as scientists technologists juries and statesmen their degree of eminence would be defined by society through the institutions designed at ha bata men on the contrary would be the ordinary citizens devoted to the ordinary pursuits of life more intent on enjoying the foods of the tree of progress then on helping it grow in practical life they will be more likely to follow the lead given by others than to initiate access to assimilate ready-made opinions by the press and mass media of communication than to think for themselves though they will talk discuss and vote on these concepts as if they were their own they will pretend as they are expressing their own views but actually they are views are all formed by the media so the in the future in industrialization the future society will be divided into two types of man and what will happen to society will depend on the activities of alpha type rather than beta type they there are some people who will go for convenience comfort and the erection will be determined by information media nearest understanding of what others feel do believe yesterday I also tried to link industrialization to other institutions of society that industrialization will affect education industrialization will affect gender relations industrialization will affect family etcetera etcetera now whether there is any effect of industrialization or religion on that matter our research is inconclusive and gisbert first gives a study some he quotes three studies in which it shows that industrialization has actually increased written religion in India contrary to the belief that industrialization we need to secularization in case of India you find more religion among industrial workers than outside industry and then he also gives example of youth students more educated people who are less religious than others but there he says that the reason may have nothing to do with the display Jason but intricated youth difference they are lesson then the reasons for being less religious or artists will have to be found somewhere else maybe in change of values maybe experiences maybe the milieu condition total million total conditions social conditions in which they operate so he said that the relationship is inconclusive and sociological literature there and this is one sociology of religion is one very important area of research and research in this field has shown that contrary to beliefs of sociologists a mahindra came Karl Marx everyone at one time everyone thought that industrialization will lead to secularization but this has not happened the nature of religion may have changed and in some countries church attendance may have declined and religion may be taking a much more spiritual or personal dimension but people do believe in religion and in that context I would say that Talcott Parsons explains this much better than other founder fathers of sociology because for Talcott Parsons religion is a search for meaning religion is man's response to conditions of anxiety uncertainty unpredictability and man was to find reason behind unreasonable things behind injustice behind exploitation behind poverty and religion provides some kind of meaning then religion makes people fight or beer the tensions or stresses of modern life much better so like this industrialization affects various institutions of society in this context Get Smart also says that industrialization will lead to a cybernetic society the concept of cybernetic society was given by Norbert Wiener and use this concept to characterize society marked by use of man-machine and computers a cybernetic society depends on combined activities of men machines and computers people have used different tongues for more advanced society like affluent society knowledge society service society post-industrial society postmodern society and this concept of cybernetic society may be seen in that light it's an advanced society in which man machines and computers work together society guided by artificial intelligence it's a one society is governed by artificial intelligence it's a very different Society it will change the relationships the relationship in cybernetic society between say a man and a doctor will not be of the type it was in a traditional village society a doctor was in India at least quite often doctor was a fluid doctor organized ritual religious ceremonial activities he was also a custodian of norms of society now with artificial intelligence now your computer has become your doctor you feed your data into computer and throw artificial intelligence computer tells you exactly this is the problem you are suffering from and computer will also prescribe you medicines you can take that this is cybernetic society computer aided society in all respects in in industry in insurance in hospitals in banking in university there is an increasing use of computers so you can see the change change over from a nomadic wandering a during food gathering hunting kind of society to a society based on raising animals then a society basil haughty culture then the society page on agriculture then machine industry and then in post-industrial society there is an increasing use of computers and whenever one mode of production is replaced by another mode of production one technology is replaced by another technology when there is a progress in terms of tools and techniques there is a corresponding change in social relations carl mars express this more powerfully than any other person in in cybernetic society in which you are making more use of computers the traditional type of roles and relationships will change very drastically even classroom I don't know classrooms will continue but in cybernetic society in more advanced society in say an educational institution like IIT 20 25 years from now I don't know what will be the utility of class because the lectures by faculty members of IIT Kanpur and also lectures of the best in universities and Institute's Harvard and Chicago cambree's will be available on YouTube if you want to study social change yesterday I sent you one link in which professor you again Singh who is one of the most eminent professors of sociology he taught in JNU now he is retired he is speaking on social change now I think you should see that lecture and when such lectures will be available to students on YouTube or maybe on much more improved varieties of space why should they come to class the nature will change then the nature of as organization of educational institutions will have to be changed I don't know what that will be a postmodern post-industrial cybernetic society is becoming much more unpredictable we cannot say what will happen in the future but yes then we are moving in that direction now this the cybernetic society it is also leading to three things one we have seen the world division dual division of society they do division of society in terms of how people utilize the entire time some people utilize alpha type people utilize their leisure for knowledge goodness truth duty then there is growth that is because for everyone there is growth of leisure and third social and individual disorganized social and individual disorganization so this is okay growth of leisure since with the help of machine and computer you can produce very large quantities of all necessities consumers Lords producers good services hundred times thousand times lakh times what a man could do otherwise productivity of man can be raised with computers the computers makes new possibilities possible with computers if we did not have computer it was not possible to go to moon or other planets it was not possible in simple machine ease in the age of manufacturing a man could not have thought of going up to moon or mosque now people are aiming at other planets computers have revolutionized knowledge and production in various fields in genetics in biology in medicine in space research in energy everywhere we find use of computers so there are good things this enormous rise in the volume of production per person because of machine and computers has done many good things so it has increased leisure but leisure is causing a dual division of society so it's interesting to see here we have discussed for quite some time the nature of social stratification how society gets divided into different ranks which can be arranged hierarchically on the vco wealth prestige and power and in social stratification product contribution to production really status I the worker has been an important determinant of your class position but in post-industrial cybernetic society so social stratification will have to do more with they do Division of society alpha types and beta types in the coming is this signified that in the coming age and society will have a two class model but this class is not based on one's contribution to production this class is based more on the division on the basis of how people utilize their leisure Surya don't you think the profit-making motive of the capitalist society will suffer here in this growth of pleasure and interval division of society system and as we have this seems more of a communist pattern of society and if we mess up since we usually think it is not arriving any time soon the communist system so here yeah that's my yeah it's an interesting question that in knowledge society or in cybernetic society whether economic classes will become redundant this is true that more and more our classes are formed on the basis of credentials if we look at the nature of social stratification in math market economies of the West the middle class is expanding and as far as ownership is from ownership of property is concerned virtually by having shares in industries mutual fund shares a very large percentage of population has become capitalists so middle classes are also capitalist and this joint presence of joint stock companies and share only and spread so much maybe in only society of tomorrow without getting transformed into a communist system it will be some kind of communist system in which shares of industries or shares of productive organizations are held by the entire population so the market economies are also moving in two very important features of change you can see in market economies of the West one expansion of middle-class based on certificates degrees diplomas educational credentials achieved characteristics not aspire achieved what they achieve in life and it's very large number of capitalists who aren't only from profits and who do not have credentials it's very very small now middle-class is expanding and this also means that ownership of capital is separated from decisions about capital owners are not important because those people who take decisions in expanding capital are not same as the owners of capital ownership itself has not remained confined to five or ten or fifty or hundred families the whole society has become owner of the capital anybody can buy shares when shares are sold in the market when a company sells its shares in the market anybody and although the number of people having shares in major industries in India may be restricted but we can't say that this will not happen in India we can't rule out the possibility of a large number of Indians at least the at least the majority of urban people and a small proportion of rural people having shares of major industrial companies and in that case everybody will become owner decisions will be taken by those who are MBAs from I am and the Bangalore Kelvin they they will take the decision and money will belong to a large number of people thousands lakhs maybe crores of people who are in principle owner of the company owner of the company is not one person we are moving in that direction even market so in one sense even market economies are moving in that would open direction of communism which was conceived by Karl Marx through a process of revolution so but the problem is that the cybernetic society is also producing some ill consequences and is leading to social and individual disorganization the disorganization means that so far mentality of individuals and norms of larger society were governed by conditions of old times situation has changed this combined use of man-machine computer has changed the situation and this has produced enormous changes in industry in politics and society and family it must produce but for the transitional period there will be what we call maladjustment yesterday using the language of Ogburn and when different institutions or different parts components or groups in a society change at different rates some change at a very fast rate some change at a slow rate so there is a problem of strain between two or more institutions of parts or groups or regions of society which are correlated and which are changing at different rates so same thing is happening here that individual norms and one can empirically then analyze what are the norms of society by what norms and values our individual lives are governed by what values and norm the whole society social organization is governed and one can find that many of these norms and values which were okay 500 years ago are not appropriate in the changing circumstances and therefore when society when men machine computers have made your society a cybernetic society we are not living in agricultural society we are not living in early industrial society we are living in cybernetic society and if you want to run our life or if we want to run our whole society according to norms of agricultural societies then they will be proud they will be disorganized conflict distrust disintegration violence disharmony alienation or dissatisfaction for a large section of population and even without giving examples I can say and I think you can understand this that if you look at your norms family norms marriage norms the religious norms these norms were created in situation of a very different kind when the norms were created by which our religious priests and our Dharma gurus want our life to be conducted today these norms were created in a very different situation very different circumstances and if you want to live your life according to those norms not in society of that time not in nomadic society not in agricultural society but in cybernetic society then there are problems for you and also problems for society new knowledge will have to be created what these new norms will be still we are not very clear about that but what the sociologists point out is that cybernetic society is passing through a phase of social and in individual disorganized many of the problems of our times psychological problems neurosis psychosis maladjustment alienation not finding satisfaction in life conflicts religious cars class conflicts we governance or declining trust in government in state they are indicative of some deep-rooted changes in society and that is that we are moving towards a new type of society which will require different types of locks it appears the two gisbert it appears I am the one can debate whether this is going to have to no not that this new society will be divided more on the basis of how people use their leisure time not on the basis of anything else and they will be alpha type and beta type with this we take up another idea of social change and that is what and related to alpha beta but not completely confined to this aspect what will the nature of progress in the future what will be evolution what kind of evolution will occur and why does evolution occur at all and here we can talk of natural and social selection there are many concepts associated with this kind of thing ladies fear survival of the fittest are some of these ideas is still important survival of the fittest adaptation in the past anthropologists sociologists looked at social change in terms of some of these things adaptation yes adaptation is there that for example those peoples those animals including human beings who developed lungs could survive better on earth and those animals fish and others who develop gills they could survive in water we could not survive in we human beings cannot survive inside the water and fish cannot live on earth so there is a rule of environment palms can be found in warm climate and ends can be found in cold latitudes only so there is adaptation and that means role of natural factors natural factors adaptation environmental conditions play an important role in selection but then this raises a number of questions one central to central questions which can be raised in this context of natural and social selection and survival of the fittest is two questions are born are the survivors fittest are the survivors the fittest people how do we define fitness yes there is a struggle for survival they fight for survival some survive some do more survive but how do you define fitness is this Fitness purely physical or intellectual is this Fitness only physical when you talk about adaptation to learn natural environment you are mostly talking about physical adaptation but some sociologists Darwin himself in whose name which we have the theory of social Darwinism or social evolution Darwin thought that acquired intellectual capabilities can also be transmitted to the next generation and he felt that in survival of the fittest inherited physical as well as intellectual or achieved kind of characteristics intelligence will play an important role we can ask this question whether but this is debatable issue not everyone agrees with this not everyone agrees with the position that sons of mathematicians are likely to be better in mathematics so physical and intellectual and second the role of social factors and the role of positive factors like cooperation love planning equality humanism etcetera etcetera humanists if society is a battlefield of some kind and the best persons are surviving then does it does this mean only those physical and intellectual traits or power or arms or military techniques warfare gunpowder through which you could win you could invade other territories you could win your enemy destroy them completely all duds in the progress of society whatever you be the meaning of your progress of society these things also play an important role is there any role of equality humanism cooperation equilibrium empathy justice or virtues valued and ethics in the social progress it's a difficult question to answer his word discusses that question and gives us some examples also I was reading and some time back I thought that today I will read a paragraph from this book sometime back I read a book this title is Genghis Khan in Hindi which is changies Khan and this is a book a very authentic research base book Han Cheng is can a genghis khan in one paragraph say genghis khan's only redeeming quality in Voltaire's play was that he reluctantly recognized the moral superiority of the better educated the more i see Voltaire's quoted Genghis Khan as saying the more I must admire this wonderous people great in arts and arms in the Ling and in manners great their kings on wisdoms basis founded all their power Ganges can ended the play with the question what have I gained by all my victories by all my guilty Lawrence is stained with blood – which Voltaire answered the tears the sighs the curses of mankind and with these words Voltaire himself began the model cursing of the Mughals Mongols are first of all what is Fitness and if you define Fitness in terms of survival survival of the fittest Darwin is social Lebanese a revolutionary principle then it's not clear what is the meaning of fitness if Fitness is only physical survival or ruthless elimination of other tribes or other countries or other populations is that really Fitness and does history show that only ruthless people have survived or ruthless people have won and simple peace-loving cooperative people living according to principles justice ethics they have always suffered and has there not been any rule of these positive ethics or virtues in progress of mankind the social change but any discussion on social change must answer some of these questions when I was reading this word many examples were coming to my mind its physical fitness like you all have heard about this maybe you have read two books of this person stiffen villian talking he was the director at the center of theoretical cosmology in Cambridge University he's completely paralyzed quite early in life is completely paralyzed and for 30 years or more he has been professor of mathematics in Cambridge and then the director of the center of theoretical cosmology and he is known for his first class original and very valuable research on black holes he's the person who showed that black holes also released some radiations and his contribution to theory of relativity string theory that is very well known completely paralyzed so his physical freedom in the life of individual or in the life of society it's physical everything there shall replace the contributions of these people like around 1938 when chai China was invaded by Japan Mao Zedong on the request of Mao Zedong and Netaji Subash and both he was then the President of India National Congress organized a team of doctors volunteers on volunteer basis and one of them was Dwarkanath Courtenay's maybe some of you if you have not seen use your what is that d + D + + DC + + use your DC + + to watch Courtney schemer kahani and this man goes to China and serve the wounded soldiers of China in Japanese invasion and he provides his services for nearly 5 years in China Chinese people he still remember his name only some time back his graveyard was renovated finally after spending five years there he died of epilepsy I don't know we do not have records of whether he carried epilepsy before he left for China or because of his hard work there among the soldiers he developed them he died of a epilepsy now is there any no role of such people is there no rule of Christ or Buddha or Mohammed of Ramakrishna the people who talked of values love cooperation peace is only if if only fear if survival means only physical survival then the barbarian ruthless cruel Mongols or moguls or second Alexander the Great so these these people must be respected because these people understood the theory of the survival of the fittest but the records show that they neither they themselves were happy nor the societies or the countries where the event where ever happening so what is then progress if progress is defined in these terms survival of the fittest all ages it justifies ladies fear it justifies exploitation it justifies dominant discrimination justifies war conflicts because survival of the fittest those who are fit the world is like a war war of all against all and those who will only the freed people will survive then there is justification for injustice inequality dominant discrimination prejudices war heinous crimes and you must sing the glory of Alexander and Genghis Khan Mohammed Ghori they must we must worship them and we must be like them only we we must teach our children our society our students in classroom to be like Ganges come because survival of the fittest in the right perspective on evolution but this word seems to be on the other side that these positive things virtues to contribute what is more important for progress or what will be found to be more important for progress of mankind subsequently whether these negative traits or positive traits only future will tell us but the aim of this chapter was to reject the theory evolutionary theory evolutionary theory inevitably leads to the theory of survival of the fittest so to reject this kind of evolutionary theory and say that in the progress of mankind ethics virtuous life and values will play or should play an important role the kind of progress that will come from application of such virtues will be real progress and other types of progress or survival even if it leads to survival will lead to tears sighs and pain now in the next lecture I will focus more on the second part of their social change urbanization

Author Since: Mar 11, 2019

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